The relationships among its constituent parts has changed many times. Geography Map of the United Kingdom. It is estimated that the UK is made up of over small islands. With a land area of 94, square milessquare kilometersthe United Kingdom is slightly smaller than Oregon in the United States.
Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Book of Kells. Danish seamen, painted midth century. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West. After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity.
In the absence of a magister militum living in Rome, even the control of military matters fell to the pope. Gregory the Great c — administered the church with strict reform. A trained Roman lawyer and administrator, and a monk, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook and was a father of many of the structures of the later Roman Catholic Church.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he looked upon Church and State as co-operating to form a united whole, which acted in two distinct spheres, ecclesiastical and secular, but by the time of his death, the papacy was the great power in Italy: From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Roman legions had never conquered Ireland, and as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity managed to survive there. Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
Later in the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire restored its rule in much of Italy and Spain. Missionaries sent from Ireland by the Pope helped to convert England to Christianity in the 6th century as well, restoring that faith as the dominant in Western Europe.
Working as a trader he encountered the ideas of Christianity and Judaism on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, and around began preaching of a new monotheistic religion, Islamand in became the civil and spiritual leader of Medinasoon after conquering Mecca in By the early 8th century, Iberia and Sicily had fallen to the Muslims.
By the 9th century, MaltaCyprusand Crete had fallen — and for a time the region of Septimania.
From this time, the "West" became synonymous with Christendomthe territory ruled by Christian powers, as Oriental Christianity fell to dhimmi status under the Muslim Caliphates. The cause to liberate the " Holy Land " remained a major focus throughout medieval history, fueling many consecutive crusadesonly the first of which was successful although it resulted in many atrocities, in Europe as well as elsewhere.
Charlemagne "Charles the Great" in English became king of the Franks. Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity.
Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe. Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy. These conquests were not long-lasting, however. In Alfred the Great drove the Vikings out of England, which he united under his rule, and Viking rule in Ireland ended as well.
In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population. By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, NorwaySwedenand Denmarkall of which were Christian and part of Western civilization.
Norse explorers reached IcelandGreenlandand even North America, however only Iceland was permanently settled by the Norse. A period of warm temperatures from around enabled the establishment of a Norse outpost in Greenland inwhich survived for some years as the most westerly oupost of Christendom.History of Europe, history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present.
Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.
It is the first successful colonial revolt in European history.  Treaty of Paris ends Revolutionary War; British give generous terms to US with boundaries as British North America on north, Mississippi River on west, Florida on south. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
In history of Latin America: The independence of Latin America entered into an alliance with France in , it set off a series of developments that opened up economic and political distance between the Iberian countries and their American colonies.
+ free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a state located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe.
It comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with a .