Children with SLD have average or above-average intelligence. This is especially true in middle and high school, where the focus of special education often shifts away from intensive intervention toward supports that help students complete assignments and prepare for tests in their regular classes. To close the achievement gap, schools need to provide intervention—early and with sufficient intensity—in addition to providing accommodations that help students with disabilities access grade-level content. Inclusion refers to educating special education students in general education classrooms alongside their peers who are not receiving special education services.
I began my career as a teacher in inner-city Los Angeles, in a community that was described recently in the L. Times as one of the poorest areas of the city. I first taught predominantly African-American students and then later, because I spoke Spanish, immigrants from Cuba and Mexico who arrived speaking no English.
Nichols Supreme Court Case helping school districts provide successful programs for children who did not understand or speak English. These work experiences impressed upon me the importance of affirming diversity. The work at the Lau Center took me to schools in isolated rural areas, in border cities, and urban centers.
As those of you working in public education know, there is no single magical solution, no one teaching strategy, no one program that will make all students succeed.
There are, however, a variety of programs that meet important needs, that define success differently, that affirm diversity, that work well for Mexican-origin students — and for students of other backgrounds Delpit ; Romo ; Sleeter Here I offer suggestions to make the celebration of diversity a way of affirming differences and securing student success.
Differences in Cultural Values Influence School Success Cultural groups define success quite differently from one another and quite differently from the definition of success used in U.
Understanding various perspectives is important because cultural differences can influence how teachers view the behaviors of students in classrooms, how children interact with teachers and other adults in the schools, and how parents perceive that school staff are treating their children.
I will elaborate on each of these issues by providing examples from different cultures. Susan Philipsin her book The Invisible Culture: Communication in Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation demonstrated clearly that the successful behaviors expected of children by respected elders in the American Indian community differed significantly from the behaviors expected of children by their classroom teachers.
She observed four classrooms, following students during their school activities, and then informally interviewed teachers about what she had observed. She spent time in the community, too, participating in activities and events, visiting with people in their homes, and traveling around the reservation with residents.
She concluded that many of the problems of Indian children noted by their teachers resulted from incompatibilities between Indian and Anglo systems for the regulation of turns at talk. In the Indian system of talk, the individual had maximum control over his or her own turn at talk and minimum control over the turns of others.
Individuals decided when they wished to talk and did not have to be called upon to be given a turn. Address by a speaker was often general, rather than focused on a particular individual.
If an individual did not pay attention in an Indian event, it did not deter the speaker from continuing to talk. Also, in Indian interaction, an immediate response to a speaker was not always necessary.
An individual might ponder what a speaker had said, then respond to an earlier point after much time had passed. Individual speakers controlled the end of their turns and were not interrupted by others.
In the community, young people were expected to listen carefully to their elders. In the Anglo-system classroom, children were expected to respond immediately when called upon by the teacher.
The teachers were not accustomed to allowing longer pauses between speakers' turns at talk. The teachers often allowed too little time for a response before calling on another student or asking another question.
The possibility that a child might respond to questions somewhat later in the discussion was not likely to occur to the teacher. Such a response would not, in most cases, even be recognized then by the teacher as a meaningful response.
We found that many homes of recent immigrant, below-poverty-level children were rich in language, literacy socialization, and developmental activities.
In the Indian community, the children were socialized to be cooperative and to care for siblings. They did not learn to compete for adult attention.
The children were taught that it was improper to draw attention to themselves as individuals, to display knowledge, or to appear to know more than others. Talking out of turn was also considered improper behavior.
Indian children would not interrupt one another or compete for attention in a group.
In the classroom, when the teachers tried to organize small-group activities, the Indian children did not participate.As we approach the one-year anniversary of the election, writers and artists propose solutions that could repair the underlying problems bedeviling our system.
Speech Impairment Affecting Literacy Development - The ability to read and write are a much needed skill in today’s world. Children with a specific language impairment are at a greater risk of literacy deficit than their typical developing peers (Hugh, Fey, & Zhang, ).
(Also known as: Art on the Net) Join fellow artists in sharing art from the source, the artists themselves. We are Artists helping artists come online to the Internet and the WWWeb.
Guided reading is an important strategy in improving literacy skills. Students gain confidence reading texts that are accessible to them at their level, but still present some challenges. Readers work through these challenges with guidance from their teacher or even peers, improving fluency and comprehension as they go.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The best method the government can use to improve literacy rates in America is to advance the system of education and education technology. Of course advancing the education system isn't as simple as it sounds.
Increasing the budget on education and education technology is a good start but without a.