Hell is longing for this moment to be different. Our Longing For Home Jeff, November 26, All beings long for home, that timeless place of deep rest, that place of eternal freedom from uncomfortable thoughts and feelings.
Routledge Edward Craig ed. Buddhism Plain and Simple. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books,page Thought and Imagery in Theravada Buddhism. Cambridge University Press,page Thus, during mental training, the stream is not to be 'cut' immediately, but guided, like water along viaducts.
The meditative steadying of the mind by counting in- and out-breaths in the mindfulness of breathing is compared to the steadying of a boat in 'a fierce current' by its rudder. The disturbance of the flow of a mountain stream by irrigation channels cut into its sides it used to illustrate the weakening of insight by the five 'hindrances'.
Rewards in operant conditioning are positive reinforcers. Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive reinforcer and therefore a reward.
Although it provides a good definition, positive reinforcement is only one of several reward functions. They are motivating and make us exert an effort. Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior.
Thus any stimulus, object, event, activity, or situation that has the potential to make us approach and consume it is by definition a reward. Rewarding stimuli, objects, events, situations, and activities consist of several major components.
First, rewards have basic sensory components visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory A separate form not included in this scheme, incentive salience, primarily addresses dopamine function in addiction and refers only to approach behavior as opposed to learning These emotions are also called liking for pleasure and wanting for desire in addiction research and strongly support the learning and approach generating functions of reward.
Sydor A, Brown RY, eds. A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd ed.
VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior Chapter 15attention, and multiple forms of memory. This organization of the DA system, wide projection from a limited number of cell bodies, permits coordinated responses to potent new rewards.
In this example, dopamine modulates the processing of sensorimotor information in diverse neural circuits to maximize the ability of the organism to obtain future rewards. Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". The neural substrates that underlie the perception of reward and the phenomenon of positive reinforcement are a set of interconnected forebrain structures called brain reward pathways; these include the nucleus accumbens NAc; the major component of the ventral striatumthe basal forebrain components of which have been termed the extended amygdala, as discussed later in this chapterhippocampus, hypothalamus, and frontal regions of cerebral cortex.
These structures receive rich dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area VTA of the midbrain. Addictive drugs are rewarding and reinforcing because they act in brain reward pathways to enhance either dopamine release or the effects of dopamine in the NAc or related structures, or because they produce effects similar to dopamine.
A macrostructure postulated to integrate many of the functions of this circuit is described by some investigators as the extended amygdala.
The extended amygdala is said to comprise several basal forebrain structures that share similar morphology, immunocytochemical features, and connectivity and that are well suited to mediating aspects of reward function; these include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central medial amygdala, the shell of the NAc, and the sublenticular substantia innominata.
In the prefrontal cortex, recent evidence indicates that the OFC and insula cortex may each contain their own additional hot spots D.
Successful confirmation of hedonic hot spots in the OFC or insula would be important and possibly relevant to the orbitofrontal mid-anterior site mentioned earlier that especially tracks the subjective pleasure of foods in humans Georgiadis et al.
A brainstem mechanism for pleasure may seem more surprising than forebrain hot spots to anyone who views the brainstem as merely reflexive, but the pontine parabrachial nucleus contributes to taste, pain, and many visceral sensations from the body and has also been suggested to play an important role in motivation Wu et al.
From Abuse to Recovery: Retrieved 8 April So it makes sense that the real pleasure centers in the brain—those directly responsible for generating pleasurable sensations—turn out to lie within some of the structures previously identified as part of the reward circuit.
One of these so-called hedonic hotspots lies in a subregion of the nucleus accumbens called the medial shell.
A second is found within the ventral pallidum, a deep-seated structure near the base of the forebrain that receives most of its signals from the nucleus accumbens. On the other hand, intense euphoria is harder to come by than everyday pleasures. The reason may be that strong enhancement of pleasure—like the chemically induced pleasure bump we produced in lab animals—seems to require activation of the entire network at once.
Defection of any single component dampens the high. Studies have shown that cravings are underpinned by activation of the reward and motivation circuits McBride et al. According to these authors, the main neural structures involved are: Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages.
Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction.Essays Papers - Longing to Escape.
Essay on Dreams and a Desire to Escape in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men - Dreams and a Desire to Escape in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men Apparitions and longing to want freedom, mold Steinbeck's tale Of Mice and Men.
The Odyssey: Longing for Home Essay Longing for Home In the Odyssey, Ithaka is illustrated as a place of danger and struggle, yet Odysseus yearns to reach his homeland. On his journey home, Odysseus is presented with homes in which he knows he will be safe and with an abundance of comfort.
Emma Eckstein (–) was an Austrian author. She was "one of Sigmund Freud's most important patients and, for a short period of time around , became a psychoanalyst herself". She has been described as "the first woman analyst", who became "both colleague and patient" for Freud.
As analyst, while "working mainly in the area of sexual and social hygiene, she also explored how. The Object Parade: Essays [Dinah Lenney] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This new collection of interconnected essays marches to a provocative premise: what if one way to understand your life was to examine the objects within it? Which objects would you choose? What memories do they hold?
And. THE PROFESSOR OF LONGING. Jill Talbot. The Professor of Longing. Dr. Jill Talbot Contact: We'll discuss stories, essays, and poems that remind me of my most recent misgivings, the lingerings I'm unable to yield, the words underlining my past.
Our study will include recurring images, my own, of course, as well as the themes of my. Longing. Jennifer Savage November 24, essays. I have driven across landscapes looking for him. In the middle of the night, across two states, that boy was waiting in the early morning to open the door for me, to pull back the sheets and lay beside me.
These through-the-night drives happened over a handful of years a long time ago.