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History[ edit ] The first gas heater made use of the same principles of the Bunsen burner invented in the previous year.

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Disclaimer Many project websites link to this document in their sections on how to get help. That's fine, it's the use we intended — but if you are a webmaster creating such a link for your project page, please display prominently near the link notice that we are not a help desk for your project!

We have learned the hard way that without such a notice, we will repeatedly be pestered by idiots who think having published this document makes it our job to solve all the world's technical problems. If you're reading this document because you need help, and you walk away with the impression you can get it directly from the authors of this document, you are one of the idiots we are talking about.

Don't ask us questions. We'll just ignore you. We are here to show you how to get help from people who actually know about the software or hardware you're dealing with, but Unless you know for certain that one of the authors is an expert on what you're dealing with, leave us alone and everybody will be happier.

Introduction In the world of hackersthe kind of answers you get to your technical questions depends as much on the way you ask the questions as on the difficulty of developing the answer.

This guide will teach you how to ask questions in a way more likely to get you a satisfactory answer. Now that use of open source has become widespread, you can often get as good answers from other, more experienced users as from hackers.

This is a Good Thing; users tend to be just a little bit more tolerant of the kind of failures newbies often have. Still, treating experienced users like hackers in the ways we recommend here will generally be the most effective way to get useful answers out of them, too.

The first thing to understand is that hackers actually like hard problems and good, thought-provoking questions about them. If we didn't, we wouldn't be here. If you give us an interesting question to chew on we'll be grateful to you; good questions are a stimulus and a gift.

Good questions help us develop our understanding, and often reveal problems we might not have noticed or thought about otherwise. Despite this, hackers have a reputation for meeting simple questions with what looks like hostility or arrogance.

It sometimes looks like we're reflexively rude to newbies and the ignorant. But this isn't really true. What we are, unapologetically, is hostile to people who seem to be unwilling to think or to do their own homework before asking questions.

People like that are time sinks — they take without giving back, and they waste time we could have spent on another question more interesting and another person more worthy of an answer.

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We realize that there are many people who just want to use the software we write, and who have no interest in learning technical details.

For most people, a computer is merely a tool, a means to an end; they have more important things to do and lives to live. We acknowledge that, and don't expect everyone to take an interest in the technical matters that fascinate us.

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Nevertheless, our style of answering questions is tuned for people who do take such an interest and are willing to be active participants in problem-solving. That's not going to change. Nor should it; if it did, we would become less effective at the things we do best.

Apple products put complete freedom of expression in the hands of every student who uses them. iPad is simple enough for anyone to master right from the start, and flexible enough to let students go wherever their ideas take them. Social Constructivism in the classroom Reciprocal Teaching. Where a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on a topic. Since , the Internet’s original resource for information and insights on the classic science fiction film, A Space Odyssey. A Space Odyssey promotional art by Robert McCall.

We take time out of busy lives to answer questions, and at times we're overwhelmed with them. So we filter ruthlessly.

In particular, we throw away questions from people who appear to be losers in order to spend our question-answering time more efficiently, on winners. If you find this attitude obnoxious, condescending, or arrogant, check your assumptions. We're not asking you to genuflect to us — in fact, most of us would love nothing more than to deal with you as an equal and welcome you into our culture, if you put in the effort required to make that possible.

But it's simply not efficient for us to try to help people who are not willing to help themselves. It's OK to be ignorant; it's not OK to play stupid. So, while it isn't necessary to already be technically competent to get attention from us, it is necessary to demonstrate the kind of attitude that leads to competence — alert, thoughtful, observant, willing to be an active partner in developing a solution.

If you can't live with this sort of discrimination, we suggest you pay somebody for a commercial support contract instead of asking hackers to personally donate help to you. If you decide to come to us for help, you don't want to be one of the losers. You don't want to seem like one, either. The best way to get a rapid and responsive answer is to ask it like a person with smarts, confidence, and clues who just happens to need help on one particular problem.

Improvements to this guide are welcome.Serge Gutwirth () professor of Human Rights, Comparative law, Legal Theory and Methodology at the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), where he studied law, criminology and also obtained a post-graduate degree in technology and science studies.

As we expect more from technology, do we expect less from each other? Sherry Turkle studies how our devices and online personas are redefining human connection and communication -- and asks us to think deeply about the new kinds of connection we want to have.

How do creative people come up with great ideas?

Pixton | Comics | Make a Comic or Storyboard

Organizational psychologist Adam Grant studies "originals": thinkers who dream up new ideas and take action to put them into the world.

In this talk, learn three unexpected habits of originals -- including embracing failure. "The greatest originals are the ones who fail the most, because they're the ones who try the most," Grant says. Inspiration. This comic was inspired by this three-part series on the backfire effect from the You Are Not So Smart Podcast.

If you want to learn more about the backfire effect and other related behaviors (confirmation bias, deductive reasoning, etc), I highly recommend listening to the whole thing: Podcast Part 1 - Podcast Part 2 - Podcast Part 3. Your essay structure helps make the argument and discussion clear and coherent.

Use of language: you display a good standard of English with few grammatical errors or spelling mistakes and it is written in an academic writing style. In her essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, Laura Mulvey introduced the second-wave feminist concept of "male gaze" as a feature of gender power asymmetry in concept was present in earlier studies of the gaze, [specify] but it was Mulvey who brought it to the forefront.

Mulvey stated that women were objectified in film because heterosexual men were in control of the camera.

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