Abstract The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves.
The Chemistry of Fireworks Composition The Chemistry of fireworks is based on the simple theory of combustion. The composition inside the firework must however contain 6 vital ingredients: Fuel Charcoal, commonly known in the pyrotechnic industry as black powder is the most common fuel used in fireworks.
Normally, all fuels will contain an organic element such as charcoal or thermite. The mechanism by which the fuel functions in the firework is relatively simple.
The fuel loses electrons to atoms within the oxidiser thereby reducing the oxidiser and releasing atoms from the oxidiser. During this process, bonds are formed between the fuel and oxygen atoms forming a product which is relatively stable.
However, only a minimal amount of energy is required to start the combustion of this fuel-oxidiser compound. When combustion does start, the result is a massive release of energy as the solid mixture liquefies and vaporises into the flame of ignition. This maximises the probability of reaction of the oxidiser as it is brought into the close proximity of the flame.
Oxidising Agents The function of the oxidising agent is to produce the oxygen needed in order for the mixture inside the firework to burn. These oxidisers can be nitrates, chlorates or perchlorates. Nitrates only give up a third of their oxygen as the equation above illustrates.
On the contrary, Chlorates get completely reduced as they are better oxidising agents and so cause an even more spectacular reaction.
This however does cause the reaction to become extremely explosive. Perchlorates contain even more oxygen but are less likely to explode than chlorates due to their increase in stability. They follow the reaction below: Reducing Agents The second part to a firework is the reducing agent.
These burn the oxygen provided by the oxidising agents to produce hot gasses. Common reducing agents are Sulphur and Charcoal.
These react with the oxygen to form Sulphur dioxide and Carbon dioxide respectively as illustrated below. By mixing both the reducing agents, the speed of the reaction can be controlled. Regulators Metals can be added to regulate the speed at which the reaction. The larger the surface area of the metal, the faster the reaction will proceed collision theory.
Colouring Agents Different chemicals are used to produce different coloured fireworks.
Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the influences of fireworks on atmospheric particulate matter (PM) including its mass concentration and chemical properties. To further investigate the impact of fireworks during Taiwan's Lantern Festival, source identification and apportionment of PM were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor . Properties of Fireworks In America there is nothing greater than celebrating an American holiday by blowing up a small part of it. Many people do this using fireworks. Is there nothing more exciting than watching a sparkling aerial repeating light up the sky. Overview of common consumer fireworks, chemical composition and legal regulations. • High forensic interest in the analysis of pre-blast devices and post-blast residues. • Discussion of main techniques used to determine consumer fireworks. • Information for police laboratories to identify consumer fireworks in .
Therefore, in order to produce a firework of a certain colour, the correct corresponding chemical or as the case may be, mixture of chemicals can be used:part 5: analysis on the solid reacted in acid The filtered solution was added sodium carbonate to neutralize any xs Hcl present.
The endpoint is roughly found either on the formation of turbidity (by unsoluble carbonate) or by .
Creating firework colors is a complex endeavor, requiring considerable art and application of physical science. Excluding propellants or special effects, the points of light ejected from fireworks, termed 'stars', generally require an oxygen-producer, fuel, binder (to keep everything where it .
Chemistry of Fireworks The Chemistry of Fireworks A firework is an incendiary device or material that can be used for signaling or entertainment. There are chemicals located in the nose of the rocket that explode, producing the colors seen.
Further knowledge on the physical properties of firework aerosol particles could improve our understanding of the influence of fireworks on respiratory health.
Opting for more environmental friendly techniques using newer technology other than the conventional methods is a further possible solution. The Chemistry of Fireworks A firework is an incendiary device or material that can be used for signaling or entertainment.
There are chemicals located in the nose of . The most commonly used binder is known as dextrin, a type of starch which holds the composition together. Paron can also be used in binding, however it is less common and only used in conjunction with red and green fireworks as it helps to enhance their colour.